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Learning Styles

  • Print – refers to seeing printed or written words.
  • Aural – refers to listening.
  • Interactive – refers to verbalization.
  • Visual – refers to seeing visual depictions such as pictures and graphs.
  • Haptic – refers to the sense of touch or grasp.
  • Kinesthetic – refers to whole body movement.
  • Olfactory – refers to sense of smell and taste.

Cyril O. Houle conducted one of the most famous studies on what motivates learners. He identified three subgroups to categorize motivational styles.

  1.  Goal-oriented learners use education to accomplish clear-cut objectives.
  2. Activity-oriented (social) learners take part mainly because of the social contact. Houle wrote, “Their selection of any activity was essentially based on the amount and kind of human relationships it would yield.”
  3. Learning-oriented learners seek knowledge for its own sake. “For the most part, they are avid readers and have been since childhood…. and they choose jobs and make other decisions in life in terms of the potential for growth which they offer.”