Students Should Demonstrate These Skills at the End of Kindergarten:
- Sound and Word Discrimination
- Tells whether words or sounds are the same or different (cat/cat = same; cat/car=different).
- Identifies which word is different (e.g., sun, fun, sun).
- Tells the difference between single speech sounds (e.g., Which one is different? s, s, k).
- Identifies whether words rhyme (e.g., cat/mat; ring/sing).
- Produces a word that rhymes with another (e.g., “A word that rhymes with rose is nose. Tell me another word that rhymes with rose.)
- Orally blends syllables (mon-key) or onset-rimes (m-ilk) into a whole word.
- Orally blends 2-3 separately spoken phonemes into one-syllable words (e.g., m-e: me; u-p: up; f-u-n: fun).
- Claps or counts the words in a 3-5 word sentence (e.g., Sue can jump far).
- Claps or counts the syllables in 1-, 2-, and 3-syllable words.
- Says each syllable in 2- and 3-syllable words (di-no-saur).
- Identifies the first sound in a one-syllable word (e.g., /m/ in man).
- Segments individual sounds in 2- and 3-phoneme, one-syllable words (e.g., run: /r/ /u/ /n/; feet: /f/ /ee/ /t/).
Phonological Awareness Benchmarks for kindergarten:
- 25 first sounds per minute by mid-year
- 35 sound segments per minute by the end of kindergarten
Students Should Demonstrate These Skills by the Middle of First Grade:
- Sound Isolation
- Identifies initial sounds in one-syllable words.
- Identifies final sounds in one-syllable words.
- Identifies medial sounds in one-syllable words.
- Sound Blending
- Blends 3-4 phonemes into a whole word (e.g., /m/ /a/ /n/: man; /s/ /k/ /i/ /p/: skip).
- Sound Segmentation
- Segments 3- and 4-phoneme, one-syllable words (e.g., m-a-n; s-k-i-p).
Phonological Awareness Benchmark for first grade:
- 35-45 first sounds per minute by mid-year
By the end of grades 1 and 2, students should be able to demonstrate the following skills:
- SubstitutingExample: “Nap. What word do we get when we change the /n/ to /c/?” (as in rhyming or word family practice).
- DeletingExample: “Flake. What word do we get when we take away /l/ from flake?”
- AddingExample: “Mile. What word do we get when we add /s/ to the front of mile?”